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National 4-H Literature Development

Nationally produced 4-H project curriculum - traditionally called educational aids - primarily included member manuals, leader guides and supportive A/V materials.

While support guidebooks and manuals; even films, were offered through the National 4-H Supply Service (a division of the National 4-H Service Committee in Chicago) from its earliest days, these were often written by outside authors or groups and not officially produced at the national level except for the National 4-H Song Book and a few similar selections.

Then, during the 1950s and 1960s, National 4-H News, the national 4-H leaders' magazine (also a division of the National 4-H Service Committee), started a major program of offering their readers helpful publications produced by the private sector. The magazine added two staff members to fill the demand for orders and were distributing 3.5 million pieces annually for a decade or more.

During this period 4-H continued to play its unique educational role. While the schools emphasized the "pure" sciences, 4-H traditionally stressed the practical application of scientific knowledge. Extension increased its efforts to encourage 4-H'ers to ask the "Whys?" as well as the "Hows?" in their "learning by doing" projects. However, there was at least one major problem. Few volunteer leaders felt qualified to answer scientific questions. They knew how to bake a cake or apply fertilizer; they didn't always know why it was to be done in a certain way. To give volunteers the information they needed to answer the "why" questions, both the National 4-H Club Foundation and the National 4-H Service Committee expanded their services in the areas of leader training.

Along with the leader training, nationally produced 4-H literature became a major force. In 1965 the National 4-H Service Committee began offering, at cost, educational aids prepared by Extension appointed development committees, with assistance of private sector donors. During the decade, 4-H moved aggressively into the publication of 4-H literature for both members and leaders. The National 4-H Service Committee became a central national source for educational aids. By the end of the decade, the Service Committee's publications work had grown to amazing proportions. In 1969, 1.4 million copies of educational publications for members and leaders in 12 program areas were distributed at cost. In addition, the Service Committee processed orders for publications offered by donors in 12 other programs. By 1976 distribution of educational aids offered by the National 4-H Service Committee at cost totaled over three million pieces.

With Extension's 4-H program development committees guiding the planning and development of curriculum for publications, and national donors providing financial developmental costs and technical assistance, the National 4-H Service Committee (later National 4-H Council) published dozens of members' manuals, leaders' guides and supportive audio-visual materials during the decade of the 70s and on into the 80s and very early 90s. During these 30 years from the mid-60s to the 90s, more than 700 nationally produced educational aids were offered for sale amounting to 10's of millions of copies.

The Service Committee created a new department in 1976 to handle this growing service area; its first new department in over 40 years. Called the Educational Aids and Publications department, Larry L. Krug was the first manager, overseeing the department until early 1987. A new full time educational aids editor was also hired. Initially, David Pelzer held this position, up until the merger of the Service Committee and National 4-H Club Foundation and the consolidation of the two associations into the National 4-H Council in Chevy Chase, Maryland. The Educational Aids Department began functioning in Chevy Chase in very early 1980. Linda Collier was the new educational aids editor and later, in 1984, Jim Chatfield joined the staff as educational aids producer/manager, and later in the 1880s Warren Pray managed the department.

Krug oversaw the development of many of the educational aids from the later 1960s until the mid-1980s, working closely with the 4-H Extension development committees, with the writers, artists, designers, and printers, and handling the marketing and distribution of the new department's output, while also wearing the hat of executive editor of the National 4-H News magazine.

Krug reflects back, "in many ways these were exciting times, yet unchartered territory. The concept of the Extension-appointed development committees was an excellent idea, however no two committees operated exactly the same. They were filled with `personalities' and there was always give and take on the curriculum design and approaches. Age appropriateness of content between the youth development specialists and the subject matter specialists sometimes resulted in heated debates. It was not uncommon for some of these committees to take three or four years to complete their work. Before the age of the Internet and of telephone conference calls, most of the committees met several times a year face-to-face. Some committees determined there needed to be an annual project member manual and leader guide for each of 10 years of project work if youngsters wanted to remain in that project for 10 years. The teams were large, often having a count of nearly 20 members. A typical committee would include a staff person from 4-H, Extension USDA and a subject matter specialist from the federal Extension staff. Also, two or three state 4-H and subject matter specialists. Communications and curriculum design specialists from the state level were often included, and sometimes an extension agent or two from the county level, plus a program specialist and educational aids editor, both representing National 4-H Council (National 4-H Service Committee). If a corporate donor was funding the development, there would normally be one, two or three representatives from the private sector on the committee, or ad hoc to the committee. This was particularly true if the subject matter was not an extension main stay, such as vision education, dog care, aerospace or photography. In later years, a couple of teen members were often represented on the committees. Consequently, by group decision, we produced some excellent national literature... some others, not quite as good.

"Printing was always a challenge in determining press runs. We had some minimum runs we had to maintain and occasionally we knew from the start that we may not ever sell all the copies. Other times, with popular publications and stronger program areas, we often went into reprints before the first year was out. The Colson Company in Paris, Illinois was a major printer of 4-H literature and even had a named 4-H Department. They also handled the storage, distribution and sales of the members manuals and leader guides they printed, which was a tremendous service to our small Service Committee staff. Jay Kaiserman, our major rep with Colson for over 30 years, and his wife, Becky, were tremendous supporters of 4-H, as were Cynthia and John Jedd, chairman and president, respectively, of The Colson Company. The Kaisermans and Jedds became long time 4-H donors in their own right. Of course, The Colson Company did not have an exclusive on 4-H literature printing. Other companies were also used, and particularly on the audio-visual aids, but Colson was the major player.

"For a small staff of a manager, an editor, and two part-time support staff, the growing educational aids area was almost overwhelming. There would be many times when we had 30 to 40 publications underway at the same time, but in different stages. Working with the extension development committees and the primary authors, the corporate sponsors, the artists and photographers and printers was a part of every project. And, then there was marketing and promotion and inventory control... watching for pieces that needed to be rerun; or, if moving slowly, devising a special inventory reduction sale.

"Some development committees took great pains in attempting to keep the curriculum messages simple, producing perhaps two or three member units and a combined leaders' guide. Other committees let their excitement and energy get the best of them and wanted to teach the 4-H'ers everything... sometimes ending up with 50 or more units! Our role was to work with all of them - the development committees quite correctly maintained the control."

The 1970s also ushered in a whole new area of support for the educational aids department - the production, marketing and distribution of support materials for nationally produced 4-H television series. This was a new area of outreach for Extension 4-H and required new producers and vendors for the Service Committee's young educational aids department. When in the past, print runs often were dealt with in the thousands, now we were talking hundreds of thousands... and, even millions. The popular 4-color comic book that accompanied the Mulligan Stew nutrition series had a total sales volume of seven million copies.

By the late 1970s, the cafeteria of offerings in the nationally produced educational aids area had gotten so large that a series of 30 educational aids fliers were mass produced annually and offered free of charge throughout the Extension System. These included fliers on the following subjects:

  • Automotive
  • Bicycle
  • Citizenship
  • Clothing (Clothing, Fashion Revue, Sewing)
  • Commodity Marketing
  • Communications (Photography, Public Speaking)
  • Conservation, Ecology
  • Consumer Education, Home Management
  • Designing 4-H With People
  • Dog Care and Training
  • Economics, Jobs and Careers
  • Electric Energy
  • Energy
  • Food-Nutrition (Bread, Dairy Foods, Food-Nutrition)
  • Food Conservation, Preservation and Safety
  • Forestry
  • Health, Safety
  • Home Environment
  • Horse
  • International
  • Leadership
  • Leisure Education, Art and Crafts, Camping
  • Petroleum Power (Tractor, Small Engines, Snowmobiles)
  • Plant and Soil Science, Entomology, Gardening
  • Veterinary Science
  • Wildlife Conservation
  • Wood Science (Woodworking)
  • General Aids - Awards
  • General Aids - 4-H Clubs and Groups
  • General Aids - 4-H Promotion

A complete set of the educational aids fliers for one year - 1980 - can be found in the Books and Other References Archive on the National 4-H History Preservation website in the section "Nationally Developed Curriculum Material."

Although many states purchased quantities of the nationally produced member manuals and leader guides to support the 4-H program areas at the volunteer leader and member level in their states, some states elected to produce their own support materials for these projects. There were certain project areas where national materials were never produced including most of the livestock projects - beef, dairy, sheep, swine, goats, rabbits, poultry. Also many of the crop projects never had nationally produced materials through the national development committee process - corn, wheat, soybeans, tobacco, peanuts, cotton and other crop projects. This was probably due to the geographic differences in these livestock and crop programs from one area of the country to another, plus many states had strong extension subject matter specialists in their state in some of these project areas who quite simply wanted to produce their own material.

Major changes came in the early 1990s. The national 4-H awards programs were discontinued by National 4-H Council in 1994, including the last National 4-H Congress in Chicago, which had been supported by the awards donors since 1921. Since the awards donors were also the major financial contributors to the developmental costs of all of the educational aids supporting the 4-H program areas, this basically also ended the development of educational aids through the National 4-H Council. There still were major inventories of the manuals, fliers, leader guides, slide sets and other materials, most of this still warehoused at The Colson Company. Council's National 4-H Supply Service took over the distribution of the remaining sales of educational aids literature, including having some major "fire sales" of some of the items. Additionally housed inventory was disposed of through financial negotiations with The Colson Company.

Although the National 4-H Supply Service continues to sell a line of curriculum materials relating to everything from robotics, aerospace and computers to dairy goats, cats and fishing, it is created privately, not through the national 4-H development committee process, nor with development funds from 4-H program donors. The history of the 4-H educational aids developed through the National 4-H Service Committee, and later National 4-H Council, by Extension-Council-corporate donor partnerships and coordinated by the Educational Aids Department, basically ended in the 1990s.

While the archive of file copies of nationally produced educational aids at the National 4-H Council has been destroyed, the National 4-H History Preservation team is attempting to locate as many sample copies as possible. These are being digitized and placed in the Nationally Developed Curriculum Material media archive on the 4-H history preservation website at: http://4-HHistoryPreservation.com/Media.asp

A brief history of the development of many of these educational aids is given in the following table. This is not a complete list, however it does include most of the more relevant pieces produced from the 1960s through the 1980s. A review of the table shows the tremendous importance of three major groups: 1) the creativity and guidance given by the national program development committees; 2) the financial support provided by the national 4-H program corporate donors; and 3) the coordination of production and marketing by National 4-H Council through their educational aids department. This partnering triad of dedication provided a strong nationwide curriculum for dozens of 4-H program areas at a critical era when 4-H was faced with providing stronger volunteer leader tools; more science emphasis in their programs; and, reaching new audiences like urban expansion and television programming.

Program Area:Aerospace
Donor and Consultant Support:National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Arthur Young & Company
Educational Aids Developed:"Blue Sky Below My Feet - Adventures in Space Technology" 4-H television series.
Narrative:Three half-hour programs and accompanying support materials dealt with gravity and force, fiber and food. Each program related space age technology to everyday application in the lives of the 9-12 year-olds for whom the programs were designed. A standing committee of Extension 4-H specialists oversaw the content of the series. States represented on the committee included Connecticut, Georgia, Michigan and Oregon. The series was completed in 1985 and test-marketed through the Dade County, Florida school and 4-H systems. NASA provided the educational expertise, technical assistance, availability of astronauts, and substantial amounts of footage for the production. Arthur Young & Company provided funding for the production.

Program Area:Automotive
Donor and Consultant Support:The Firestone Tire & Rubber Company; National Safety Council
Educational Aids Developed:A variety of materials were developed through the National 4-H Automotive development committee process - member manuals and leader guides, advanced units, films, newsletter and an entire program kit entitled "The 4-H Wheels Program."
Narrative:Two members' manuals and leaders' guide units were developed by the National 4-H Automotive development committee with assistance from the National 4-H Council, National Safety Council and with Firestone Tire & Rubber Company underwriting the original cost of preparation. Unit I, "The Car and the Highway," was concerned with care and safety of the auto in general terms. The 48-page manual covered the automobile land what makes it operate, highway safety, traffic codes and driver responsibility, car costs and record keeping and car safety inspection. Unit II, "Maintenance and Operation," dealt basically with operating and maintaining the automobile.

Four advanced automotive units included: Safe 'n Easy, 4-H Motorcycle Manual and Leader's Guide, Automobiles and Energy, Know Your Limits (drugs and driving), and Careers in the Automotive Industry.

A 16mm film, "Driver in Command," explained how to conduct a local 4-H automotive driving event as a way to add real interest and dimension to 4-H automotive programs. The film was produced by National 4-H Council in cooperation with North Carolina State University and showed various parts of the driving event - written test, safety and maintenance inspection and how to chart the driving course. There was also a Driver in Command brochure and Suggested Procedures & Scoring Guide for conducting a 4-H automotive driving event. Firestone underwrote costs for producing and distributing the film.

An earlier film, The Paducah Story," about the 4-H automotive program in Paducah, Kentucky, was produced by Firestone in 1964, and it is believed that an additional film highlighting the excellent automotive program in Wheeling, West Virginia, may have been produced a couple of years later.

A National 4-H Automotive newsletter, "On Wheels," was published periodically by the National 4-H Council to provide a medium for those working with the 4-H automotive program to give and gain automotive programming ideas from all areas of the country.

The 4-H Wheels Program was prepared by the National 4-H Automotive development committee for use in connection with the 4-H automotive program. Firestone underwrote costs for the program which was produced by National 4-H Council. The 4-H Wheels Program Kit included a bright red binder in a carrying case, 180 slides in two boxes plus a tape cassette and a printed script, 12 unit guides for use by organizational leaders and resource persons, sample copies of the 12 member activity sheets and a sample participation certificate. The activity sheets, which came in pads of 25 copies each, included the following titles: Car Identification; New Road Signs Identification; Engine Parts and Functions; Power Train and Brake System Parts; Tire Inspection and Evaluation; Used Car Check List & Costs of Buying a Car; Car Inspection Check List; What Does It Cost to Operate a Car?; Map Symbols, Planning a Trip, Trip Expenses Record; First Aid and Emergency Equipment Check List & What to Do at the Accident Scene; Can You Identify These Parts and Equipment?; Causes of Accidents; and Participation Certificates

Program Area:Bicycle
Donor and Consultant Support:The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company; National Safety Council
Educational Aids Developed:Three members manuals, a junior leaders' guide and a leaders' guide were prepared for 4-H use by a National 4-H Bicycle development committee with assistance from National 4-H Council, National Safety Council and The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company underwriting preparatory costs of the literature. Slide sets were also offered nationally in support of the program and a 4-H Bicycle television series premiered in early 1970.|
Narrative:Beginning in 1968, on through 1970, members and leaders materials were issued through the National 4-H Service Committee in the fast growing 4-H bicycle program as they were developed and printed. The Unit I members manual, "Your Bike and You," aimed at youngsters 9 to 11 years old and treated subjects such as bike riding is fun, getting to know your bike, bicycle parts, be sure your bike fits you, learning how to signal properly, signs of life, and take care of your bike. Unit II, "Maintaining Your Bicycle," for boys and girls 10 to 12 years old, covered keeping your bike in good condition, adjustments and repairs you can make, checking chain condition, keeping wheels and spokes aligned, tire care, accessories for more fun, and planning a hazard hunt. Unit III, "Enlarging Your Cycling Knowledge," for youngsters 11 to 14, was divided into the following subjects - personalizing your bike, painting, customizing, tires, cleaning and adjusting bearings, re-spoking wheels, planning bike trips and serving your community. The Junior Leaders guide suggested ways teens could share their cycling skills with younger members and, at the same time, gain leadership experience. The 4-H Bicycle Program Leaders' Guide, a 32-page manual, which was revised a couple of times, explained how to involve community groups, how to conduct meetings, meeting outlines for Unit I, suggestions for conducting other units, materials and equipment needed, and check sheets.

Twelve slide sets produced in support of the 4-H Bicycle program were distributed through Educational Aids, National 4-H Council. The first eight were produced by Ohio Cooperative Extension Service: Types of Bicycles and Sizing the Bicycle, Bicycle Driver Responsibilities and Rules of the Road, The Bicycle Tool Kit and Its Use, From Flat to Mobile, Can You Stop?, Bicycle Wheel Maintenance, From Head to Foot, and Accessories, Needed or Nice? The Indiana Cooperative Extension Service produced two bicycle slide sets: 4-H Bike-A-Thon, explaining how th state 4-H Bike-A-Thinned in Indiana was conducted and how a similar event could be set up in other states or locales, and "4-H Century Bike Ride," which explained how Indiana conducted their 100-mile, two-day ride as a promotional tool for 4-H and the bicycle program and as a fund raising activity for the Indiana 4-H Foundation. "The Joy Machine," a set of 122 slides with accompanying script and audio cassette was produced by the Michigan Cooperative Extension Service and was primarily intended to promote the 4-H Bicycle program to kids not already enrolled in the project. And, lastly, a set of 44 slides with script and cassette on "Bike Safety" was produced by the New York Cooperative Extension Service.

In 1974 permission was granted to the University of Massachusetts to translate the national 4-H bicycle literature into Spanish.

The 4-H bicycle television series, "4-H TV Fun on Wheels Club," was developed by the Cooperative Extension Services of the University of Connecticut, University of Massachusetts and University of Rhode Island, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The TV programs had an accompanying 20-page manual and leaders' guide. Assisting were the National 4-H Service Committee, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Allstate Insurance Companies, Bicycle Institute of America Inc, American Youth Hostels Inc and National Safety Council.

Program Area:Bread
Donor and Consultant Support:Standard Brands Incorporated
Educational Aids Developed:Young Cook's Bake a Bread Book and Young Cook's Bake a Bun Book; Yeast Dough Shaping Made Easy film.
Narrative:Standard Brands, donor of the National 4-H Bread Awards Program, produced a number of publications directed at young bread bakers and made them available through National 4-H Council.

"Yeast Dough shaping Made Easy," was a 14-1/2 minute color film produced by Standard Brands Incorporated explaining how easy it can be to shape two basic doughs, one for dinner rolls and one sweet dough, into many exciting shapes. The film was premiered for an Extension Service audience at the 1970 National 4-H Food-Nutrition Workshop in Dallas, Texas. 4-H groups were encouraged to borrow the film to show at club and county meetings.

Program Area:Citizenship
Donor and Consultant Support:The Coca-Cola Company
Educational Aids Developed:A leaders' guide and seven unit member series on citizenship was produced by the Southern Region 4-H Citizenship Committee with financial assistance from The Coca-Cola Company. The series was produced and offered nationally through National 4-H Council.
Narrative:The seven units of Citizenship member manuals had the following titles: Me, My Family and Friends; My Neighborhood; My Clubs and Groups; My Community; My Heritage; My Government; and, My World. An older publication, "Adventures in Citizenship," was produced as a leader's handbook and useful to anyone working in a leadership capacity with young people. The 112-page publication helped to develop a clear idea of the meaning of citizenship and suggested different kinds of activities which could bring citizenship education into practical application.

A 15 minute film was offered through National 4-H Council that dealt with citizenship. "Getting Involved," was produced in cooperation with The Coca-Cola Company and promoted the National 4-H Citizenship Awards Program. It told the story of four teens who had won their states' top citizenship awards and the activities in which they were involved.

Citizenship training opportunities at the National 4-H Center resulted in a number of support materials developed over the years. "Active Citizenship," a 10-minute slide/tape presentation, gave a description of citizenship training opportunities. There were also a variety of brochures explaining the opportunities of Know America, the 4-H Family Heritage Program, Citizenship in Action program sponsored by the Reader's Digest Foundation, Citizenship-Washington Focus, Family America, and others. These promotional pieces were frequently revised and updated.

Program Area:Clothing
Donor and Consultant Support:Coats & Clark, Inc.
Educational Aids Developed:A series of activity leaflets were made available to 4-H members and leaders in cooperation with Coats and Clark, sponsor of the National 4-H Clothing Awards program.
Narrative:Project leaflets providing "how-to" instructions for making sewing items included a fabric game board, sewing kit, zip Up sack and racket cover. Leaflets to help members develop a different sewing skill included leaflets for knitting, crochet, latch hooking, embroidery, counted cross stitch and needlepoint.

A wide variety of leaflets for leaders was also offered. Some of these included titles of: Time Saving Sewing, Sewing Today's Fabrics, Stretch Terry and Velour, Saving Energy with Clothing and Textiles, Metrics for Clothing Construction, Tailoring, Mending and Hems.

A 20-minute slide presentation entitled "Energy Saving Ideas," emphasized conserving energy through use of clothing and textiles. Dressing to keep warm and cool was illustrated. Maintaining thermal comfort in the home through furniture, carpet and drapery selection was also presented

Program Area:Commodity Marketing
Donor and Consultant Support:Chicago Board of Trade
Educational Aids Developed:Commodity Marketing member manual and leader guide and Commodity Marketing slide set.
Narrative:The National 4-H Commodity Marketing program committee, working with the Chicago Board of Trade and National 4-H Council, developed a member manual and leader guide to support the Commodity Marketing Program. In addition, an 80-slide set with script and synchronized audio cassette was produced as an introduction to the National 4-H Commodity Marketing Program.

Program Area:Consumer Education
Donor and Consultant Support:Montgomery Ward and Company
Educational Aids Developed:Educational materials prepared by a National 4-H Consumer Education task force composed of representatives of SEA-Extension USDA, the Cooperative Extension Service, and National 4-H Council, with Montgomery Ward, donor of the National 4-H Consumer Education awards program, providing financial assistance were packaged in a project called "Teen Scene."
Narrative:The Teen Scene educational materials were prepared by Ohio Cooperative Extension Service in cooperation with the National 4-H Consumer Education task force. A 16-page, 4-color manual packed with consumer information and activities in a magazine format was directed to teens, while a 12-page leaders' guide suggested teaching tools and activities for most effective ways of presenting materials in the member manual. Two synchronized slide/cassette tape sets were also offered: Teen Scene Slide Set for Teens and Teen Scene Slide Set for Leaders, all items offered through Educational Aids, National 4-H Council.

National 4-H Council also offered "4-H Consumer Education Radio Spots" - a tape of nine 30-second radio spots each conveying a helpful consumer education message directed to teens and promoting the 4-H Consumer Education program. Topics included: comparative shopping, reading labels, advertising, read before you sign, avoid impulse buying, your consumer rights and responsibilities, credit, understanding the marketplace and evaluating quality.

Program Area:Dairy Foods
Donor and Consultant Support:Carnation Company
Educational Aids Developed:Dairy Food Puppet filmed feature; several member's manuals.
Narrative:A 16mm film of a puppet show featuring dairy foods and created by a 4-H dairy foods 1974 national winner stressed the importance of dairy foods and good nutrition to young audiences.

In 1970 Carnation Company prepared a booklet especially for 4-H members interested in foods. Titled "Right Eating... keeps you swinging," it was jointly prepared by Carnation and the Federal Extension Service. It replaced an earlier publication called "Right Eating... and Your Dairy Foods Demonstration." The National 4-H Service Committee handled the distribution which was offered at no cost.

"New NOW Nutrition" was a 16-page, four-color 4-H Dairy Foods manual for members. Presented with a modern art style for the "now" generation, the manual was designed to "...help 4-H'ers tell the nutrition story as dramatically and widely as possible." Carnation provided funds for the new manual which was prepared in cooperation with the Home Economics and 4-H and Youth Development staffs of USDA, National 4-H Service Committee and the public relations and home service departments of Carnation.

"Join the Fitness Team," was an intermediate-level four-color member manual produced through special funding by Carnation, sponsor of the 4-H Dairy Foods awards program, in 1984. The publication was based on objectives and concepts identified by extension 4-H staff and nutrition specialists, and emphasized the nutritional needs of boys and girls, giving special attention to the relationship of dairy foods to the total food plan, the wide variety of dairy foods, aerobic exercise and fitness, monitoring pulse rate, cooking with dairy foods, and consumer education

Program Area:Designing 4-H With People
Donor and Consultant Support:National 4-H Council
Educational Aids Developed:The Designing 4-H With People Resource Bank included over 60 different items in support of the Designing 4-H With People process.
Narrative:Designing 4-H With People was a process of matching the needs of people with available resources to meet those needs. The emphasis was on designing appropriate learning experiences with people rather than for them. The resource bank included aids to assist people in a variety of skills like setting priorities, organizing ideas, expressing feelings, getting acquainted, identifying resources, evaluating, making decisions, confronting issues, problem solving, helping others, listening, sharing ideas, clarifying terms and many more. All of the items were available nationally through Educational Aids, National 4-H Council.

Some of the many items in the resource bank included: Detective Four H. Clover game; Sharing Volunteer Leadership slide set; Willow in the Snow slide set; Shadow Helpership slide set; Designing 4-H With People listening tape; An Introduction to Designing 4-H With People series of 8 colorful posters; 30 Vignettes designed for use by two people or in groups; a series of six "Tales of 4-H Helpers" designed in comic book format to be fun, easy to read, and easy to relate to; and "The Nanimal Series," designed for use with the younger children in 4-H by their families or any significant other person. The series included vignettes for 7-10 year olds, a coloring book (with a moral to the story) for 4-6 year olds, an illustrated story for 4-8 year olds, and a game for 4-6 year olds. Nanimal teaching aids were coordinated so that the user could build continuity of learning experiences.

Program Area:Dog Care and Training
Donor and Consultant Support:Ralston Purina Company
Educational Aids Developed:The National 4-H Dog Care and Training development committee created five member units and a leaders guide in support of the 4-H Dog Care and Training Program. A slide set and a couple of work forms were also created and a dog training television series produced in Colorado; all provided with financial support from Purina Dog Foods Group, Ralston Purina Company and offered through National 4-H Council.
Narrative:Ralston Purina Company accepted sponsorship of the 4-H Dog Care and Training Program in the late 1960s and almost immediately started working on educational materials for members and leaders in support of the program.

The member manuals included: "Training Your Dog for Family Living," "Dog Obedience Training Lessons for Beginners, Graduate Beginners, Brace and Team; "Dog Obedience Training Lessons for Novice, Graduate Novice, Open and Utility; Grooming and Handling Dogs; The Care of Puppies and Dogs - Selecting, Feeding, Breeding and Housing; and, a 4-H Dog Care and Training Leaders' Guide.

The entire series of member manuals and leader guides were updated and totally redesigned in the early 1980s through a grant from Dog Foods Group, Ralston Purina Company.

The slide set, "Joining the 4-H Dog Care and Training Program," included 74 slides and accompanying cassette tape. Also offered for project support was a 4-H Member's Record Dog Project, a 4-page record form allowing members of the 4-H Dog Care and Training Program to keep accurate information records about their project; and, a one sheet guideline, "Leader's Guide for Home Inspection."

Dog Sense, was a 4-H series of eight half-hour television programs produced at KRMA-TV Denver, an educational television station, with the assistance and supervision of Colorado State University and Denver area Extension agents. Ralston Purina underwrote the cost of having the series transferred to videotape which was then distributed through the National 4-H Service Committee

Program Area:Electric Energy
Donor and Consultant Support:Westinghouse Electric Corporation
Educational Aids Developed:The National 4-H Electric Program development committee, with financial and technical assistance of Westinghouse, developed seven member manuals and leaders' guides supporting the 4-H Electric Energy program. An electric newsletter also was issued.
Narrative:A 4-H Electric development committee undertook the production of guide sheets for members in the early 1960s. Later in the decade, the guide sheets were combined into manuals for members and guides for leaders; and, in 1966 an Electric Program Handbook for 4-H leaders was compiled with assistance from Westinghouse. Topics included: Learn About Water Sources and Well Construction; The Individual Water System; Pumps in the Individual Water System; Learn About Centrifugal Jet Pumps; Motors Used in the Individual Water System; and Water Use on the Farm and in the Home.

The series was again revised during the 1970s and very early 80s.

The unit titles included: Exploring the World of Electricity; Electricity's Silent Partner - Magnetism; Working With Electricity; Electricity for the Home; Behind the Switch (covered the generation of electricity, hydro power, the steam cycle, fossil fuels, nuclear power, energy from the sun, energy from the earth, planning for power and the transmission and distribution of energy); The Basics of Electronics; and Nuclear Energy.

"4-H Current News" was a newsletter produced and distributed to extension professionals and numerous cooperating power suppliers twice each year. It shared successful 4-H Electric Energy programs, projects and activities. Westinghouse made it possible to produce and distribute the newsletter which was compiled by National 4-H Council.

4-H Electric Energy Exhibit was a large exhibit, 10' wide by 8' high by 3' deep, highlighting the National 4-H Electric Energy program used primarily for national meetings and shows of electric power suppliers. National 4-H Council coordinated the distribution of the exhibit.

Program Area:Energy
Donor and Consultant Support:Amoco Oil Company, Standard Oil Company (Indiana), Montgomery Ward & Co.
Educational Aids Developed:Printed materials include Living with Energy, The Energy Crisis, Automotive Tips to Help Motorists Save Energy and Money, Milage Maker Tips, Energy Bibliography; two energy slide sets; and a 4-H television series, "Living in a Nuclear Age."
Narrative:Several educational aids have been offered at the national level through National 4-H Council that deal with energy. Living With Energy and The Energy Crisis, both activity guides which included a graphic folder and four spirit duplicating masters, provided tips on studying America's energy problems and their solutions and tips on what young people could do to help conserve energy. Both were produced by Standard Oil Company (Indiana) and distributed through National 4-H Council.

A colorful leaflet on properly tuning an engine to use less energy, "Automotive Tips to Help Motorists Save Energy and Money," was prepared as an educational service by Montgomery Ward & Co. and was available from Program Services, National 4-H Council. Amoco Oil Company also provided a brochure through Council which suggested ways to save gasoline and energy through proper maintenance of your car and improved driving skills. It was called "Mileage Maker Tips." "Energy Bibliography," a National 4-H Intern Report available from Educational Aids, National 4-H Council, provided descriptions and ordering information for educational Energy literature, visual aids, curriculums, activities and packaged program kits useful to 4-H leaders in energy-related projects.

National 4-H Council produced and distributed two slide sets on energy, "Energy: What's Ahead for Us?" which conveyed youth's view of the energy situation as a result of a survey of 4-H'ers at the National 4-H Center done by two teen interns. The presentation included 128 slides, synchronized cassette tape and script. A second slide set, "The Energy Event," a series of 73 slides, synchronized cassette tape and script, discussed the energy crisis and what youth, as part of their responsibility, could help do about it. Produced for 4-H by the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service and the Oklahoma Department of Energy, the set was distributed by National 4-H Council.

"Living in a Nuclear Age" was the title of a 4-H television series designed for 7th and 8th graders which explored scientific information, and the benefits and the problems resulting from our move into the nuclear age. The series of six half-hour programs were available form Great Plains National Instructional Television Library in Lincoln, Nebraska and the supportive materials were distributed by National 4-H Council.

Program Area:Entomology
Donor and Consultant Support:Hercules Incorporated
Educational Aids Developed:Teen and Leader Guides, Handbook of the Insect World; "4-H Entomology: Exploring the Curious World of Insects" slide set
Narrative:The national 4-H entomology committee completed work on four manuals supporting the 4-H Entomology program in 1970. The material included a Teen and Junior Leaders Guide, Unit I and Unit II and Reference Material. Four copies of the new literature were sent to each state in master proof sheets - a copy to the State Extension Entomologist, State 4-H Leader, Director of Extension and Head of Publications. Each state was able to select and reproduce that portion of the copy of interest in their particular state. The materials was produced with financial support of Hercules, Incorporated, national donor.

The Handbook of the Insect World included hundreds of drawings of insects, with characteristics which helped in identification, order and common name. Its 62 pages were divided into familiar insects, helpful insects, household and storage pests, human and animal pests, general plant feeders, crop pests, flower pests, and shade, forest and shrub pests, developed by Hercules Incorporated and published by National 4-H Council.

The 4-H entomology slide set including 80 color slides, plus script and cassette, was produced to promote interest in the 4-H Entomology program for both the beginner and those already enrolled. It was produced through National 4-H Council with preparatory costs underwritten by Hercules Incorporated.

Program Area:Environmental Awareness
Donor and Consultant Support:UOP, Inc.; John Deere
Educational Aids Developed:A series of six slide/tape presentations accompanied by an Environmental Awareness Leaders' Guide. The six presentations included: Environmental Awareness-Introduction; Discovery in the Forest Environment; Discovery in the Inland Water Environment; Discovery in the Farm Environment; Discovery in the Town and City Environment; and Discovery in the Marine Environment.|A 90-second, 16mm filmed feature, "Building a Nature Trail," was produced by National 4-H Council and John Deere, which underwrote preparatory costs of the production.|"A Bibliography of Suggested Environmental Materials for 4-H," listing appropriate resources to support the National 4-H Conservation of Natural Resources program was developed in 1973 by the extension environmental committee with financial support from John Deere and available from the National 4-H Service Committee.
Narrative:The Environmental Awareness package was produced by the Department of Natural Resources, with assistance of Media Services, at New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, through a grant from UOP, Inc., in cooperation with the National 4-H Council. Each presentation included between 60 and 74 slides, a synchronized audio cassette tape and script. The materials were available through Educational Aids, National 4-H Council.

The John Deere-produced 90-second film featured highlights regarding building a nature trail for the blind as an activity in promoting the Conservation of Natural Resources program. It could be used as a television "drop-in" during a program on 4-H or used in off-television situations to stimulate discussion.

Program Area:Fashion Revue
Donor and Consultant Support:Simplicity Pattern Co., Inc; White/Elna Sewing Machine Company
Educational Aids Developed:Fashion Revue activity leaflets and a 16mm film, both produced with support from Simplicity, were offered through National 4-H Council.
Narrative:Two activity leaflets, each providing suggestions to use in preparing for a 4-H fashion revue, included "It's Fun To Be A Model" (for girls only) and "It's Fun To Be A Model" (for boys only).

A film on the National 4-H Dress Revue program which could be used on television to promote participation in the state or county dress revue program or off TV as a training tool with volunteer leaders and 4-H members, was produced by National 4-H Council in cooperation with Simplicity Pattern Co. Inc.

A slide set based on the 1983 4-H Fashion Revue at National 4-H Congress was designed for use in teaching modeling techniques, wardrobe planning, grooming, and staging and in promoting the 4-H Fashion Revue program. It was sponsored by Simplicity and White/Elna.

Program Area:Field Crops Science (Plant and Soil Science)
Donor and Consultant Support:Amchem Products, Inc.
Educational Aids Developed:A series of six member manuals and six leaders' guides were designed to provide educational opportunities for 4-H Field Crops Science.
Narrative:During 1968, the Field Crops Science program development committee, with the assistance of Amchem Products, Inc., restructured program emphasis to plants and soil science and the National 4-H Service Committee published member manuals and leaders' guides created by the committee. Titles for the units included: Exploring the World of Plant and Soils; Plant Reproduction; Soils; Plant Growth Factors; Plant Characteristics; Growing and Using Plants; and Practical Crop Production. The materials were available for use in 1970.

Program Area:Floriculture
Donor and Consultant Support:Society of American Florists Endowment
Educational Aids Developed:A series of slide/tape presentations promoted interest in floriculture.
Narrative:Professionally produced by National 4-H Council with preparatory costs of production underwritten by the Society of American Florists Endowment, the series of six slide/tape presentations promoted interest in floriculture as a 4-H project, with emphasis on the care and handling of flowers and plants. The titles of the six sets included: Floriculture: Bringing Nature Closer; The Floral Designers; Kevin: The Fresh Flower Expert; Tammy: The Decorative Foliage Expert; Monica: The Flowering Plant Expert; and Jack: The Green Plant Expert.

Program Area:Food Conservation and Safety
Donor and Consultant Support:Reynolds Metals Company; Heinz Vinegar
Educational Aids Developed:Series of project leaflets: Safe'N Tasty Guide to Charcoal Grilling; Safe'N Easy Guide to Bikepacking; and Safe 'N Tasty Guide to Overnight Camping were produced with financial support from Reynolds Metals Company.|A new guidebook for older 4-H'ers and volunteer leaders in 1990 was supported financially by Heinz Vinegar, sponsor of the National 4-H Food Conservation, Preservation and Safety Awards Program.
Narrative:The Safe 'N Easy series of publications provided suggestions for leisure time out of doors cooking, developed especially for use in the 4-H Food Conservation and Safety Program sponsored by Reynolds Metals Company.

Using food conservation, preservation and safety as the focus of its educational message, "Public Relations and Visibility for 4-H Food Conservation, Preservation and Safety," was a guidebook produced for older 4-H'ers and volunteers by Heinz Vinegar in cooperation with National 4-H Council. Its purpose was to help build communication, public relations and leadership.

Program Area:Food Preservation
Donor and Consultant Support:Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation
Educational Aids Developed:Ten Short Lessons in Canning and Freezing; Food Preservation slide set.
Narrative:This 24-page publication, helpful in teaching the principles of food preservation and including a short history of home canning and freezing, was developed and made available by Kerr Glass, the donor of the 4-H Food Preservation National Awards Program.

Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation, in cooperation with the National 4-H Service Committee, produced a set of 24 colored slides promoting the 4-H Food Preservation program in 1970. The "how to" slides covered the four principal methods of preserving - hot water bath, pressure canner, open kettle and freezing. The Service Committee handled the distribution.

Program Area:Food-Nutrition
Donor and Consultant Support:General Foods Corporation
Educational Aids Developed:A series of five units of member manuals and leaders' guides promoting good nutrition in support of the 4-H food-nutrition program were tremendously popular. The unit titles were: Fit It All Together - Food for Fun and Fitness, All American Foods, Quick Meals, Foods With an International Flavor, and Teens Entertain. A new intermediate level food and nutrition unit, "Fit It All Together: Food and Fitness Choices for You," was produced in 1983 with General Foods Corporation funding.|During the 1970s, a good nutrition series entitled Mulligan Stew was produced by a national 4-H television development committee.
Narrative:Near the end of the decade of the 1960s, people's concern for better nutrition brought a national 4-H food-nutrition development committee together with 4-H and extension nutritionists, supported by General Foods, resulting in a highly successful series of 4-H food-nutrition publications. The series was totally rewritten and produced in 4-color during the 1980s.

The Mulligan Stew series of six 28-1/2 minute programs, accompanied by a wide variety of promotional and educational support materials, were made available through National 4-H Council. The series centered around a five-piece kids' rock group that turned on to good nutrition by solving a different type of nutrition problem in each program. The series was developed by a national 4-H television development committee. The Iowa Cooperative Extension Service developed the concepts for the programs and tested them. Michigan Cooperative Extension Service designed the support materials. The series was filmed by USDA's Motion Picture Service and was designed for 4th, 5th and 6th graders with special emphasis on low-income urban youth in support of Extension's Expanded Nutrition program. Millions of youth across the country enrolled in the popular series. National 4-H Council was responsible for the production of the support materials and marketing/promotion of the series.

Program Area:Forestry
Donor and Consultant Support:International Paper Company
Educational Aids Developed:A wide range of materials supporting the 4-H Forestry program were developed by the National 4-H Forestry development committee with International Paper Company, donor of the forestry awards program, underwriting preparatory costs of the literature.
Narrative:Two units of forestry literature were developed, each including a member manual and a leaders' guide. Unit A, entitled "Trees," was a 32-page, 2-color manual including both lessons and activities concerning what a tree is and how it grows, how trees reproduce, how to identify trees and why trees are important. Unit 2, entitled "Forests," was 40-pages in length and included lessons on what is a forest, how are forests described, what values does a forest have and getting the most value from forests. It included both lessons and activities.

To supplement the above two units, five additional advanced units were offered: Forest Recreation; Managing the Forest for Water, Wildlife and Forage; Urban Forests; Careers in Forestry; and The Dollar Value of Forestry.

a series of four slide sets produced by the University of Idaho supported the subject matter presented in the Unit A literature on trees. Each presentation included slides, a script and two synchronized cassette tapes, one with an audio signal and one with inaudible pulsing. The titles were: What a Tree Is and How It Grows; How Trees Reproduce; How to Identify Trees; and Why Tres are Important. An additional slide set, "4-H Forestry: An Action Program," was both a promotional and educational presentation, containing 139 slides and accompanying script. The set showed the importance of the forestry industry, growing and conserving trees, and offered many suggestions for both individual and group activities in the 4-H Forestry program. The set was produced by National 4-H Council with the assistance of International Paper Company which provided one set to each state at no charge.

"4-H Forestry" was a national 4-H Forestry newsletter published periodically by the National 4-H Council to provide a medium for those working with 4-H forestry to give and gain forestry programming ideas from all areas of the country.

Program Area:Gardening
Donor and Consultant Support:Ortho Division, Chevron Chemical Company
Educational Aids Developed:"Doors of Adventure" brochure
Narrative:Prepared by Ortho Division, Chevron, and produced and distributed by National 4-H Council, Doors of Adventure was packed with great gardening project activities for 4-H members, particularly in urban areas, including mini vegetable gardens, forcing spring bulbs, vegetables from pot to pot, planting annuals, making terrariums, growing herbs, making corsages, flower arranging and much more.

Program Area:Health
Donor and Consultant Support:Eli Lilly and Company; Kraft, Inc; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Educational Aids Developed:Without Warning film; New Horizons in 4-H Health Education Guide; Taking Care - The 4th "H" slide/tape presentation; 4-H Health Newsletter; 4-H Health Radio Spots.
Narrative:This 16mm color film, "Without Warning," featured career opportunities in the field of health. Produced by Eli Lilly and Company, national donor in the 4-H Health program in the late 1960s, the company provided complimentary copies of the film to each Extension office.

A 4-H Health Newsletter was produced and distributed to extension professionals and numerous cooperating health related organizations twice each year. It shared successful 4-H Health programs, projects and activities and provided a medium for exchange of ideas, information about the important national health picture and up-to-date happenings in the 4-H Health Program. Eli Lilly and Company and Kraft Inc. made it possible to produce and distribute the newsletter which was available from National 4-H Council.

New Horizons in 4-H Health Education was a 24-page guide including ideas for re-emphasizing the health "H" in the 4-H program. The concept of health education presented in the guide evolved from a study conducted on behalf of the Cooperative Extension Service through National 4-H Council and funded by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Taking Care - The 4th "H" was a slide/tape presentation consisting of 123 slides, synchronized cassette tape and script based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation study. It was produced by the University of Wisconsin and offered nationally through Educational Aids, National 4-H Council. The 20-minute presentation was designed to help local health committees define the parameters of a comprehensive health education program with emphasis on youth programming.

A package of 4-H Health Radio Spots containing 12 30-second radio public service announcements promoted the 4-H Health Program. The 12 spots were designed to be used for an entire year, one per month. Spots were professionally produced and included music and sound effects. Topics featured in the 12 spots included: environmental health, dental care, study a disease, understanding a handicap, foot care, diet, emergency care, care of ears and eyes, listening to my body, immunization action month, community health resources and adopt a grandparent. The package was produced and distributed by National 4-H Council.

Program Area:Home Environment
Donor and Consultant Support:The Sperry and Hutchinson Company; National Paint and Coatings Association; Bigelow-Sanford, Inc; Montgomery Ward
Educational Aids Developed:Member and leaders guide supporting the Home Improvement Program entitled "Color-Texture-Design... In Space;" series of six slide sets relating to care of furniture and woods.
Narrative:A series of six slide sets and accompanying cassette tapes and scripts were produced in support of the 4-H Home Environment program and distributed through National 4-H Council. The Sperry and Hutchinson Company underwrote preparatory costs for national distribution and the National Paint and Coating Association cooperated on the project. The topics included: Routine Care of Wood Furniture Finishes; Preventive Care of Wood Furniture Finishes; First Aid for Wood Furniture; Manufacturing Wooden Furniture; Indoor Painting; and, Outdoor Painting.

A 15-minute film, "How to Buy Carpet, narrated by actress Joan Fontaine, was produced by Bigelow-Sanford, Inc., a Sperry and Hutchinson company, and was accompanied by a leader's guide. A second film, "Straight Talk About Decoration," produced by Montgomery Ward, was also offered for use with the 4-H Home Environment Program.

Program Area:Home Management
Donor and Consultant Support:Tupperware Home Parties
Educational Aids Developed:The National 4-H Home Management development committee developed two units supporting 4-H Home Management - each having a member manual and a leaders' guide. Also produced was a management card game and leader training slide set.
Narrative:The Unit I member manual, "Spotlight on Management," provided an introduction to management with emphasis on resources, goal setting and decision making. Each lesson included an action game, a written activity, a learn-by-doing activity and an evaluation technique. Unit II, "Clues to Management," included 20 clues to using management to reach a goal. The unit also included eight brain teasers, individual and group activities and a self-evaluation technique. Directions for playing a special management game, "Management Clues," was also included in the manual. The "Management Clues" card game was a 3-part card game that taught the four steps - setting a goal, planning, acting and evaluating the management process. The game was played with a deck of 110 cards.

A "Spotlight on Management" slide/audio cassette tape set was designed for use with volunteer leaders, to be used with those who would be using the Spotlight on Management project manual or in recruiting volunteers to become Spotlight on Management project leaders.

Program Area:Horse
Donor and Consultant Support:American Quarter Horse Association; Purina Horse Chows, Ralston Purina Company
Educational Aids Developed:Two member manuals and a leaders' guide supporting the 4-H Horse program - Horses and Horsemanship and Horse Science. A series of 30 slide sets on horses with accompanying scripts and cassette tapes, plus a member unit and a worksheet for each of the 30 slide lessons.
Narrative:AQHA, in the mid-1960s, helped Extension develop publications in the popular 4-H Pleasure Horse program. A decade later, working with a national 4-H horse development committee, two member manuals and a leaders' guide were produced. The Unit I members manual - Horses and Horsemanship - included 13 subjects covering everything from breeds of light horses through safety rules and precautions. Profusely illustrated, the text treated subjects such as color markings of horses, horse judging, gaits, western horsemanship, tack and equipment and its care, grooming and preparation for show, showing, care of the horse's feet and training your horse. Unit II - Horse Science - dealt more directly with the physiology of the horse and science involved in the feeding, care and maintenance of the animal's health.

A 4-H Horse development committee of Extension Service horse program specialists, in cooperation with the National 4-H Council and Purina Horse Chows, Ralston Purina Company, underwrote preparatory costs for producing a series of 30 slide sets with accompanying scripts and cassette tapes. The University of Missouri coordinated the production of the units which were produced and distributed by National 4-H Council. The 30 sets averaged nearly 70 slides each. The slide program titles included: Genetics of Coat Color of Horses; What a Judge Looks for in Equitation Classes; Internal Parasites of Horses; Health Hints for Your Horse; Intermediate Trail Riding; Pre-Bit Hackamore Training; Horse Safety (Catching, Leading, Grooming); Safety Mounted (Saddling, Bridling, Riding Western); Practical Horse Psychology; Basic Principles of Foot Care and Cold Horseshoeing; Horse Training by Driving; Buy a Horse - Not Trouble; Saddle Selection; English Saddle Construction; Western Saddle Construction; Longe Line Training; Techniques of Line Driving; Braiding the Hunter's Mane and Tail; Horse Safety for the Hunt Seat Rider; Western Pleasure Trail Riding; Competitive Trail Riding; Haltering and Tying; Miscellaneous Tack and Equipment; Choosing, Assembling and Using Bridles; Women on Horseback; Horse Backpacking I; Horse Backpacking II; Martingales, Tie Down, Draw Reins; Care of Your Horse's Feet; Hot Horseshoeing. The development committee also produced a members' unit and a worksheet for each of the 30 slide sets. The combined 90 items that made up this project was one of the largest volume projects ever undertaken by an extension 4-H development committee.

Program Area:Hunter Education
Donor and Consultant Support:Daisy Division, Walter Kidde Corp.
Educational Aids Developed:The Official 4-H Hunter Education Program Package (kit), "How to Conduct National 4-H Hunter Education Program... Five Easy Steps," and "Hunter Education Instructors' Guide" were all produced for 4-H leaders.|Two slide sets, "Shooting Positions," and "Ten Rules of Hunter Safety" were produced by Oklahoma State University and offered nationally through Educational Aids, National 4-H Council.
Narrative:The 4-H Hunter Education Program Package, produced in 1974, included all required equipment for teaching - five Daisy Model 299 BB target rifles, two specially-designed, Daisy 15-foot BB target backdrops, 7,500 Daisy Golden Bullseye BBs, 500 paper targets, 15-foot range, one 4-H Hunter Education Program Instruction Manual and one set of 13 visual teaching aid wall charts. The Hunter Education Instructors' Guide was a comprehensive 64-page leaders' guide that included lesson plans and meeting outlines. It presented an orientation of guns and ammunition, gave rules of good gunmanship, discussed proper gun handling, zones of fire and contained a glossary of gun terms.

Program Area:International
Donor and Consultant Support:National 4-H Council
Educational Aids Developed:A number of educational aids supporting the international programs conducted by National 4-H Council (and earlier National 4-H Club Foundation) were produced over the years. Some of them include: International Intrigue leaders' guide; 4-H International Programs slide set; World Map of 4-H; Begin With an International Night activity guide; IFYE Ambassador brochure; Your International Visitor leaflet; and a series of international fliers: International Programs; IFYE Representative; IFYE Ambassador; Group Leadership; International Youth Development Project (YDP); Hosting International Visitors; International Education; International Extension 4-H Travel Seminars; and, Agricultural Work Experience.
Narrative:Most of the above items were produced by staff of the international division of National 4-H Council and distributed by Council.

Program Area:Leadership
Donor and Consultant Support:National 4-H Council
Educational Aids Developed:4-H Leadership visuals, a leadership film, "You Are Richer For It," and accompanying study guide; National 4-H News; 4-H Volunteer Community educational training package; Incentives in 4-H educational training package; 4-H Leaders Recorded Series.
Narrative:To assist in leadership development, the National 4-H Service Committee, in cooperation with the Federal Extension Service, produced several new visuals available in 1962. One presentation, "The 4-H Project Leader," was available as a film strip or as 23 mounted slides, accompanied by a tape recording. Two companion presentations available in the same format were: "The 4-H Junior Leader" and "Helping the 4-H Junior Leader To Grow."

The 22-1/2 minute film, "You Are Richer For It," was an experience designed to help the beginning 4-H leader better understand what it's like to lead a 4-H Club. Practicing 4-H leaders from all parts of the United States were interviewed; their responses constitute learning sequences within the experience. These responses each dealt with an established concept from the 4-H method. The 4-H program was thus described by process rather than by program. A 4-page study guide, designed to help the leader-trainer prepare the new leader for the experience, accompanies the film. The guide was programmed for the new leader and was self-directed.

National 4-H News was the only magazine serving the country's adult and youth volunteer 4-H leaders. Published by the National 4-H Council for over 60 years, National 4-H News provided readers with the latest in teaching methods, 4-H project updates, and educational aids. "Idea Trade Shop" and "National News and Views" were among the regular departments used by leaders to share club activities and achievements. The National 4-H News Department offered a wide variety of National 4-H News reprints of major teaching features from their issues. "The Leaders and the News" National 4-H News slide tape set showed how different types of leaders used the magazine as a tool in working with youth and conducting club activities. The set included approximately 127 slides, a synchronized audio cassette tape and script.

The training module, "4-H Volunteer Community," was filled with ideas about how to develop and maintain an organized county 4-H volunteer program and was built around a basic management framework. The module was divided into six parts: planning recruiting, implementing recruiting, contacting potential volunteers, retaining volunteers, recognizing volunteers and program feedback. The educational package included six audio cassettes mounted inside the cover of an attractive vinyl notebook. Scripts and worksheets for each cassette were included in the notebook along with an appendix of ideas. Two related segments were presented on each cassette - a vignette setting up the problem and a section amplifying, clarifying and emphasizing concepts from the first section or accompanying worksheet. The module also contained an agent's guide for use by the local agent trainer in training program assistants. The 4-H Volunteer Community module was produced by the Ohio State University Cooperative Extension Service and made available nationally from Educational Aids, National 4-H Council.

"Incentives in 4-H" was a series of 10 modules developed to help 4-H volunteers to more effectively use incentives in their work with young people. The series was designed to be used by professional youth staff members as they worked with volunteers in a group setting. The modules were developed through a grant to North Carolina State University from the Extension Service, USDA. Each of the 10 modules was printed in a separate booklet. The publications were packaged along with a facilitator handbook and a support materials notebook in a convenient, heavy-duty cardboard container. It was distributed nationally by Educational Aids, National 4-H Council.

"Helping You Help Youth" was a new system for volunteer leader training, developed by the University of Illinois. It was composed of a modern vinyl sound sheet delivery system, providing personalized, self-instructional packets offering 4-H leaders an opportunity to improve their skills in working with 4-H'ers. Records were in folders with printed instructional materials. Distribution coordinated by National 4-H Council.

Program Area:Leisure Education
Donor and Consultant Support:W. K. Kellogg Foundation
Educational Aids Developed:A manual and two slide sets on Leisure Education were developed by the National 4-H Leisure Education development committee and National 4-H Council with assistance of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation.
Narrative:A 30-page "Leisure Education Guide" highlighted the concepts of the 4-H Leisure Education Program in a manner whereby the presentation could be used to instruct leaders. The "Leisure Education Slide Set" of 78 slides, synchronized cassette tape and script, also highlighted the concepts of the 4-H Leisure Education Program. "Leisure Education Artwork Slides," was a series of 28 artwork slides introducing leisure education to Extension professionals.

Program Area:Meat Science
Donor and Consultant Support:National Live Stock and Meat Board; American Meat Institute
Educational Aids Developed:A series of meat science members' and leaders' guides and evaluation forms were developed in 1990 with the support of the National Live Stock and Meat Board. These replaced older material produced by a National 4-H Meat Science development committee in the late 1960s with the assistance of the National Live Stock and Meat Board, American Meat Institute and National 4-H Service Committee... and, they may have been revised once or twice in between.
Narrative:The series of meat science educational materials consists of six projects covering subjects from carcass evaluation and meat identification to cookery. Each project includes a member's manual and a leader's guide. The materials were distributed by the National 4-H Supply Service.

Program Area:Petroleum Power (Tractor)
Donor and Consultant Support:American Oil Foundation; Amoco Foundation, Inc.; Briggs and Stratton Corporation; American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials; Standard Oil Company of Indiana.
Educational Aids Developed:Members' manuals and leaders' guides for the 4-H Tractor program and the 4-H Small Engines program; member manual and leader guide for Lawn & Garden Power Equipment; Petroleum Power Newsletter; films - "Diesel Decisions," "Running Smooth," and "Living with Energy."|`
Narrative:In the late 1950s and early 60s, several booklets and manuals were in the offering to support the 4-H Tractor program. "Where YOU Fit into the 4-H Tractor Program" was the title of one of them; another was called the "4-H Tractor Leader's Manual." By the late 1960s, as programs were adapted to urban as well as rural youth, the 4-H Tractor program became the Petroleum Power program and the American Oil Foundation assisted the 4-H Petroleum Power development committee in revising the tractor literature and publishing new materials in the Small Engines project area.

The three units of the 4-H tractor literature were updated and revised in 1977 by a 4-H Petroleum Power development committee with development and production costs of the literature underwritten by 4-H Petroleum Power sponsors including Amoco Foundation, Inc. The three member manual units were titled: Getting Acquainted With Your Tractor, Assuring Safe and Efficient Operation and Improving Your Skills. The accompanying 40-page leader manual and demonstration guide not only gave the correct answers to the quizzes used in the members' manuals but covered 4-H tractor leadership from planning to evaluation. It suggested ways of adding interest to meetings, gave demonstration ideas, special tractor activities, how junior or teen leaders may be used, and methods of keeping the public informed about 4-H. Thirty-two tractor demonstrations were outlined and illustrated.

The National 4-H Petroleum Power development committee also developed two member units and two leaders' guides for 4-H Small Engines projects. Supporting the development committee was the Amoco Foundation, Inc. with financial assistance, and both Briggs and Stratton Corp. and the American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, for technical information and illustrations. The two units included "Unit I - Small Engines," divided into 11 main sections dealing with the principals of four-stroke cycle engines, compression, carburetion, air cleaners, ignition, spark plugs, starting engines, general care and maintenance, trouble shooting and storing engines; and "Unit II - Small Engines," giving an introduction to two-stroke cycle engines and explaining the principles of operation and maintenance.

Encouraging members to expand their interests in the 4-H Small Engines project, the National 4-H Petroleum Power development committee also developed a members' manual and leaders' guide entitled "Lawn and Garden Power Equipment," with the assistance of Amoco Foundation, Inc. The manual covers lawn mowers and rotary tillers, including both safety instructions and operating instructions, plus an understanding of transmitting power and maintaining lawn and garden equipment.

A national 4-H Petroleum Power newsletter was published periodically by the National 4-H Council to provide a medium for those working with the 4-H Petroleum Power Program to give and gain programming ideas from all areas of the country.

Several films were distributed nationwide in support of the 4-H petroleum power project. "Diesel Decisions" was developed by Amoco Oil Company in cooperation with the Extension Engineering Department in Nebraska and offered through Extension Service Regional Film Libraries. "Running Smooth," a story of farm equipment lubrication, was produced by the University of Nebraska's Educational Television Department with the cooperation of the Agricultural Engineering Department and Amoco Oil Company, 4-H donor of the Petroleum Power program. It was offered through Extension Service Regional Film Libraries. "Living with Energy," documenting the energy shortage and exploring the issues of coal, oil shale and environmental issues was produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions in coordination with the Public Affairs Department of Standard Oil Company and offered through Extension Service Regional Film Libraries.

Program Area:Photography
Donor and Consultant Support:Eastman Kodak Company
Educational Aids Developed:Five units of photography literature were developed in 1963, each containing a member manual and a leaders' guide: Adventures with your Camera; Challenges in Picturetaking; Exploring Photography; Exploring Movie-Making; and Mastering Photography. Additionally, seven 4-page guide sheets were designed for members who had completed three or four of the units. These related to: Color Slides; Enlarging; News Photography; Photorecording; Photo-Visual Presentations; Investigating Small Business Opportunities; and Exploring Career Opportunities in Photography.|Eastman Kodak Company also sponsored a National 4-H Photo Exhibit for many years in cooperation with the Extension Service and National 4-H Council. Kodak, working with Extension and Council, produced a six half-hour colored television series entitled "4-H Photo Fun Club," produced at WMVS-TV in Milwaukee.
Narrative:The first 4-H photography literature for members and leaders was written by a National 4-H Photography development committee in 1963 with technical and financial assistance from Eastman Kodak Company. Throughout the remainder of the sixties additional units were produced. Later, a leader training kit appeared as the result of a survey of program needs, and an evaluation of publications in 4-H photography.

The series of manuals were revised at least a couple of times and according to Eastman Kodak Company representatives, the series of 4-H photography literature was the best photography instructional materials available for young people to be found on the market anywhere.

Eastman Kodak Company published a periodic national 4-H photography newsletter, "4-H Photography Update," in cooperation with National 4-H Council. The audience was state 4-H leaders, extension editors and visual specialists and county extension agents. The newsletter provided a medium for those working with the 4-H Photography program to give and gain photography programming ideas.

Bread baking was the topic of a new film prepared by Eastman Kodak Company for distribution to state 4-H offices in 1984. The film took a close-up look at 4-H's best smelling project and showed 4-H club members how to document their accomplishments - and have fun - with photography.

In 1986 the National 4-H Photography task force met at Eastman Kodak Company. A partnership between Kodak, state Extension representatives, former 4-H national photography winners and National 4-H Council, the group was charged with developing a new format for 4-H photography instruction. Areas of exploration by the task force included video and single color publications. Draft material and full descriptions were completed by late 1988, with final materials released in 1989. The units included: Introduction to Picturetaking; Advanced Picturetaking; Techniques; Adjustable Cameras; Darkroom; and Moving Visuals.

Program Area:Public Speaking
Donor and Consultant Support:Union Oil Company of California
Educational Aids Developed:The Organized Public Speaker--YOU was a guide for 4-H members providing them the fundamental rules of public speaking.
Narrative:This handbook explained the how, what and why of public speaking and listed suggested subjects for 4-H speeches, produced exclusively for use in the National 4-H Public Speaking program.

Program Area:Safety
Donor and Consultant Support:General Motors
Educational Aids Developed:A series of 12 "Safety for All Seasons" posters... one for each month. Also, a Safety for All Seasons" year round handbook for 4-H leaders and a "package" of 12 4-H Safety for All Seasons colored TV drop slides promoting the 4-H Safety Program sponsored by General Motors.|"Safety Line," a national 4-H Safety newsletter was published periodically by National 4-H Council to provide a medium for those working with the Safety program to give and gain safety programming tips from all areas of the county.
Narrative:The series of "Safety for All Seasons" posters were developed by 4-H members and staff at the University of Minnesota and prepared for national distribution through a special grant by General Motors. GM also provided a special grant for the production of a "Safety for All Seasons" year-round safety handbook for 4-H leaders. The handbook of 12 lessons suggests activities and leader helps relating to the Safety for All Seasons poster series. The "package" of color TV drop slides were designed for use as television public service announcements but could also be used in slide presentations. The slides were developed to be used for an entire year, one per month. A 10-second scripted message was enclosed for each slide.

The very popular "Safety Handbook for 4-H Leaders" had originally been produced in the 1960s, was revised in 1970, and perhaps a time or two following that.

Program Area:Sewing Machine
Donor and Consultant Support:The Singer Company
Educational Aids Developed:Two member units and a leaders guide on sewing machines supported the 4-H Sewing Machine program.
Narrative:In the late 1960's, The Singer Company, with Extension and National 4-H Service Committee cooperation, issued a revised series of literature for leaders and members in the "Your Sewing Machine" series. "Know the Sewing Machine" was the Unit I members' manual. A 48-page manual taught the hows and whys of operating a sewing machine, such as threading the machine, stitching, controlling machine speed, and winding a bobbin. It also helped 4-H'ers develop skills in machine stitching - curved seams, corners, hems, darts and fancy finishes. The Unit II member manual, "Master the Sewing Machine," assisted 4-H'ers in learning about sewing machine adjustments and applied stitching techniques. The first part dealt with the adjustment of stitch lengths, kinds and uses of needles and threads, adjustment of tensions and care of the sewing machine. The second part of the manual explained the principles of zig-zag stitching and its practical and decorative applications.

Program Area:Snowmobiling
Donor and Consultant Support:Ski-Doo Division of Bombardier Limited
Educational Aids Developed:A members' manual and leaders' guide - "North American 4-H Snowmobiling." Several films were also provided in support of the program by Ski-Doo, although not specifically produced for 4-H as the targeted audience.
Narrative:The North American 4-H Snowmobiling members' manual and accompanying leaders' guide were produced by the Extension Service, USDA; Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs; National 4-H Council; and Ski-Doo Division on Bombardier Limited for use in both the U.S. and Canadian 4-H programs. The manual reminded snowmobilers they accept serious responsibilities for their own safety, that of their friends and others as well as assuming responsibility for protecting the environment and other people's property.

Program Area:Veterinary Science
Donor and Consultant Support:The Upjohn Company; Women's Auxiliary of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Educational Aids Developed:Three member manuals and accompanying leaders' guides on Veterinary Science: The Normal Animal; Animal Disease; and Immunology, Zoonoses and Public Health, plus three slide sets to illustrate the printed units.
Narrative:The Upjohn Company assisted in the development of 4-H Veterinary Science publications during the 1960s. It took the national 4-H Veterinary Science development committee several years throughout the 60s to complete their work on this series, determined to find the right balance between being "too technical" on one side, yet challenging enough to keep advanced members interested in veterinary science projects. The three slide sets developed for the three units supported the 26 lessons of the three units and entailed nearly 1,250 slides in total.

Two additional slide sets supporting the Veterinary Science program were offered through Educational Aids, National 4-H Council. The first, "A Pet Needs More Than Love," was a set of 80 slides, audio cassette and script which covered the basic understanding of the responsibilities one assumes when they obtain a pet. It was produced by the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine and the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. The second set, "Colostrum, Crucial First Meal for Calves," was a presentation of 80 slides, audio cassette and script for use by 4-H Dairy members but also appropriate in veterinary science. It was produced by the Department of Microbiology, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, and funded in part by a grant from the Women's Auxiliary of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

Program Area:Vision Education
Donor and Consultant Support:American Optometric Association and its auxiliary
Educational Aids Developed:"Adventures in Vision" 52-page leaders' guide. Later on, in 1982, the AOA and National 4-H Council developed an outstanding series of member publications on vision education. Titles included: Community Service in Vision Education; A Broader View of Child Care; Vision Education Career Opportunities; Dog Guides for the Blind; Eye Safety is No Accident; Healthy Foods/Healthy Eyes; How Other Animals See; How the Visual System Plays Tricks on Us; Light for Learning and Living; Light for Sight; Living with Vision Loss; Making Light Work for Us; Our Colorful World; Problems of Vision; Vision in Everyday Life; Windows to the World; Your Remarkable Eyes; and Seymour Safely. There was also an accompanying 4-H Vision Education leaders' guide and a 4-H vision education promotional leaflet.
Narrative:The Adventures in Vision leaders' guide was produced by National 4-H Council in cooperation with the American Optometric Association and their auxiliary which provided a grant for the pilot project. The guide included information on eye care and vision, eye care activities and suggestions on how to build eye care into other 4-H programs.

The later series of publications which were from 8- to 20-pages each, thoroughly covered the vision education field, each including interesting stories and visuals and projects for participants to do.

Program Area:Wildlife
Donor and Consultant Support:Atlantic Richfield Foundation; Federal Cartridge Corporation
Educational Aids Developed:Materials provided by the Southern Regional 4-H Wildlife literature committee through a grant from Atlantic Richfield Foundation with additional support for several guides from the Federal Cartridge Corporation in memory of Charles Lilly Horn.
Narrative:The materials were approved for national distribution by the National 4-H Educational Aids Committee and produced and distributed by National 4-H Council. The project included a members manual, a leader's guide, 49 printed activity guides and two slide sets. The slide sets were titled "Wildlife and Its Environment" and "Man and Wildlife." Produced over a 5-year period, the series was finally completed in 1984.

Subjects of the activity guides were: Quail, Mourning Dove, Wild Turkey, Non-Game Birds, Birds of Prey, Waterfowl Management, Wildlife Careers, Bird Houses & Bird Furniture, Minor Game Birds of the S.E., Cottontail Rabbit, Raccoon, Squirrel, White-Tailed Deer, Minor Game Mammals of the S.E., Fish Identification & Display, Bass and Bream Pond Management, Fish Culture, Raising Earthworms, Raising Crickets, Learning About Snakes, Learning About Lizards, Learning About Turtles, Ponds and Lakes, Beaver Ponds, Streams, Providing Needs of Wildlife, Beach, Estuary, Urban and Backyard Wildlife, Wildlife Foods, Making a Wildlife Resource Map, Wildlife Ecology, Furbearers and Trapping, Taxidermy, Tanning Skins, Animal Tracks, Making Artificial Lures, Archery, Firearms and Hunter Safety, Fishing (Bait, Spin, Fly Casting & Safety), Suggested 4-H Wildlife Activities by Month, Record of Wildlife Observations, Wildlife Laws & Enforcement, Hunting & Fishing Sportsmanship, Making a Fresh Water Aquarium, Economic Importance of Wildlife, Wildlife Damage Control, Learning About Amphibians, and Handling & Care of Game & Fish.

Program Area:Wood Science (Woodworking)
Donor and Consultant Support:Stanley Works, Weyerhaeuser Company Foundation
Educational Aids Developed:Three member manuals and an accompanying leaders' guide: Working With Wood and Tools, The Wonderful World of Wood and Building Bigger Things.
Narrative:In the late 1960s, a national 4-H Woodworking development committee developed woodworking literature with the financial support of Stanley Works. Over a decade later, the National 4-H Wood Science literature development committee, with financial support by the National Wood Science Awards Program sponsor, the Weyerhaeuser Company Foundation, developed three member manuals and an accompanying leaders' guide. Unit I, Working With Wood and Tools, was a beginning woodworkers manual and explained how to buy and use lumber and plywood, how to measure, mark, cut, sand and smooth wood, how to use glues and finishes and how to use a variety of beginner woodworking tools, such as crosscut and coping saws, C-clamps and electric woodburning tools. The Unit II manual, The Wonderful World of Wood, told the steps involved in converting trees into wood products. It discussed grains, how warping land swelling affect the use of wood, how to use the grid system to make patterns of irregular shaped objects and introduced additional woodworking tools such as the combination square, pencil compass, hand drill, bit brace and auger, and rip and compass saws. Electric tools and safety rules for using them were also introduced. Building Bigger Things, the Unit III manual, covered the physical structure, properties and characteristics of wood. It told how woods are named and classified, discussed economics of the forest products industry and introduced 4-H members to more woodworking tools and machinery.

With tne name officially changed from "Woodworking" to "Wood Science" in 1977, a new National 4-H Wood Science development committee was approved and the project materials revised.






Compiled by National 4-H History Preservation Team.


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